Menstruation is a repeated bleeding from the genital tract every month, usually lasting a few days. It is caused by exfoliation of the parts of the endometrium and their excretion with blood. This happens when the embryo is not implanted in the uterus.
A few words about menstruation
Menstruation is the final stage of the monthly sex cycle of a woman in which an unfertilised egg cell is excreted together with fragments of the endometrium. Menstruation occurs in sexually mature women up to approximately 40 – 50 years of age.
Causes of menstrual pain
Menstrual pain may even appear a few hours before the onset of bleeding. The most common cause of these ailments (pain, spasms, bleeding) is the disproportion between the levels of hormones in the blood – estrogen (especially estradiol) and progesterone. In the second half of the female sex cycle, the first is more. Under their influence, the uterus begins to produce substances called prostaglandins (mainly PGF-2 prostaglandin). They are tissue hormones with activity inducing inflammation and pain in the body. In addition to the pro-inflammatory and increasing pain sensitivity, prostaglandins cause frequent and severe uterine contractions. The pain associated with menses usually disappears on the second or third day of bleeding.
The nature of menstrual pain
During monthly bleeding, women may experience pain in the sacral area, underbelly, and contraction ailments. This pain can radiate to the lumbar region of the spine. Often it is felt only as a feeling of “heaviness” in the abdomen, but many women suffer from the so-called menstrual pain syndrome, in which to symptoms of menstrual pain, they join:
nausea and vomiting,
Treatment of menstrual pain
Analgesics (paracetamol, ibuprofen, metamizol).
The mechanism of action of paracetamol takes place in two ways. It consists in inhibiting the enzyme activity (the so-called COX-3 enzyme) responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandins in brain tissue. The effect of this is to reduce pain and reduce fever. The second “pathway” of painkilling paracetamol is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in connective tissue cells (so-called macrophages), whereas agents from the group of so-called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen and metamizol, lead to inhibition of the synthesis enzyme prostaglandins, the so-called COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, the latter is responsible for the development of inflammation, blocking the inflammatory focus and secondary pain and fever. Menstruation should be avoided with acetylsalicylic acid medication. These agents may increase bleeding .
Relaxants (drotaverine, hyoscine)
Both drugs counteract smooth muscle contractions. Drotaverine also causes a slight relaxation of the muscularis of the blood vessels, which supports their oxygenation. Hyoscine, however, can cause many side effects, including drowsiness and dementia. In higher doses, it can impair the accommodation of the eye (dilation of the pupil) and cause dryness of the oral mucosa and nose.
Herbal medicines with diastolic properties:
Herbal medicines with sedative properties:
lemon balm leaf,
Herbal medicines with antihemorrhagic properties:
herb of the canopy,
Herbal medicines with properties regulating the hormonal balance of a woman’s body:
evening primrose oil (active substance: gamma-linolenic acid).
Diet and proper lifestyle for menstrual pain
Salt and spicy spices stimulate the production of prostaglandins. You should therefore limit the consumption of salty and spicy dishes. It is also worth reducing the supply of caffeinated liquids (tea, coffee, cocoa) and alcoholic beverages. Relief and relaxation can bring warm compresses applied to the lower abdominal region. During menstruation, excessive physical exertion is not indicated. Supplementation with preparations containing iron and magnesium is preferred.