Hypertension

Hypertension is a disease of chronic origin, in which there is a constant or periodic increase in blood pressure.

Table of Contents

Kinds

By origin hypertension can be:

  • essential (primary);
  • secondary.

The level of blood pressure distinguish hypertension:

  • mild form;
  • moderate;
  • severe form.

 

The reasons

Causes of hypertension lie in:

  • frequent, prolonged neuropsychic loads;
  • prolonged stressful situations;
  • hereditary predisposition.

Often a prerequisite for the occurrence of hypertension can be work, fulfilling that, a person is constantly in emotional stress. There is also a high risk of developing hypertension in people who have had a concussion in the past.

In females, the cause of hypertension can be laid in the restructuring of the body when menopause occurs. Also, an increase in the load on the cardiovascular system can be triggered by:

  • abuse of table salt, or rather sodium contained in it;
  • smoking;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • overweight.

The disease can be caused by:

  • atherosclerosis ;
  • obesity;
  • kidney diseases (chronic  pyelonephritis , glomerulonephritis, nephritis, chronic renal failure, etc.);
  • endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders (thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, myxedema, Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, menopause);
  • hemodynamic factor – the amount of blood that should be allocated for 1 minute, blood outflow, blood viscosity;
  • impaired hepatorenal system;
  • disorders in the sympathetic-adrenaline system.

Symptoms

Hypertension can manifest itself:

  • headache;
  • pain in the heart, which occurs during emotional stress or at rest;
  • visual impairment, in which there is a veil and fog;
  • dizziness;
  • weak, rapid heartbeat ( tachycardia );
  • a feeling of pulsation in the head;
  • chills;
  • memory impairment;
  • internal stress;
  • irritability;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • front sight;
  • swelling of hands and numbness of fingers.

 

Diagnostics

The simplest diagnostic method is pressure measurement. If the pressure is constantly increasing to 140/90 mm Hg and above this mark, then this indicates the presence of hypertension. Increased pressure is considered to be stable when the pressure measurement procedure is repeated (for 4 weeks, at least 2 times on different days). Diagnosis of hypertension is based on:

  • pressure measurement on two hands;
  • measuring pressure on both legs;
  • auscultation of the heart;
  • general and biochemical analysis of blood;
  • general urine analysis;
  • determining blood sugar levels in blood plasma;
  • electrocardiogram;
  • consultation with an oculist with examination of the fundus vessels;
  • ultrasound of the kidneys and heart.

Before the procedure of measuring the pressure can not drink coffee, alcohol, smoke. It is advisable to sit in a calm state for a few minutes, leaning on the back of a chair. Pressure should be measured in a sitting position. The cuff of the tonometer should be worn on a relaxed arm, which lies loosely on the table (this hand cannot be compressed by the nozzle of the gauge, move it.).

Treatment

The goal of treating hypertension is normalization of blood pressure. It is necessary to treat this disease in a complex.

The patient with hypertension will not be fully cured, but it is necessary to maintain a normal state of the body so as not to provoke attacks.

Drug treatment of hypertension is the use of drugs that help to reduce pressure:

  • b-blockers – help reduce the frequency of contractions of the heart and reduce the peripheral resistance of blood vessels (metoprolol, atenolol, whiskey, lokren un others).
  • ACE inhibitors – block the production of renin produced by the kidneys, which contributes to high blood pressure (enlapril, metiopril, captopril, cilazapril, prestarium).
  • Calcium antagonists – contribute to blocking calcium channels in the vascular walls, increase the lumen of blood vessels, which helps reduce pressure (amlodipine, corinfar, nifedipine, felodipine).
  • Potassium-preserving diuretics – have the ability to reduce the volume of fluid in the body (diuretic effect), resulting in a decrease in blood pressure (chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, clopamide, etc.).

If hypertension is amenable to treatment, it is indicated that one of the above remedies is taken. If under its action the pressure does not decrease, a combination of two or several drugs is prescribed.

Also, the treatment of sedative (sedative) drugs. It is necessary to select drugs strictly individually, it depends on the patient’s condition. For patients with hypertension, special diets are selected that are associated with a decrease in salt intake in food and fluids. Persons with hypertension cannot drink alcohol.

Treatment of hypertension non-drug includes:

  • restriction of the use of table salt;
  • weight loss with excess body weight;
  • restriction of the use of alcoholic beverages;
  • reducing the consumption of large amounts of sweet, fatty foods;
  • to give up smoking;
  • active exercise;
  • frequent rest.

 

Prevention

To prevent hypertension, you must:

  • exclude nervous and physical overvoltages; 
  • reduce the consumption of salt;
  • strengthen blood vessels for the prevention of atherosclerosis;
  • reduce overweight and subsequently control your weight;
  • follow a low-salt diet;
  • limit the consumption of animal fats;
  • undergo examinations by a general practitioner or cardiologist for the purpose of prophylaxis at least once every six months;
  • Do not overload the body with mental stress.

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